Es behinhaltet die Konzepte parasoziale Interaktion (PSI) und parasoziale Beziehung (PSB), die von Horton und Wohl in Bezug auf das neue. Parasoziale Interaktion (PSI) steht für einen spezifischen Modus, mit dem sich Rezipienten zu den in den Medien dargestellten Akteuren in Beziehung setzen. parasoziale Interaktion (= p. I.) [engl. parasocial interaction; gr. παρα- (para-) neben, socius gemeinschaftlich, verbunden], [MD, SOZ], von.
Parasoziale Interaktion„Parasozial“ „Interaktion“. 3. Stand der Wissenschaft zu parasozialer Interaktion Merkmale der parasozialen Interaktion nach Horton und Wohl 1 Die.  „Erst die Wiederholung einer kommunikativen Interaktion A-B-A lässt die Vermutung zu, dass die Beziehung sich von parasozial in Richtung sozial bewegt. Typische Verbindungen zu ›parasozial‹. maschinell ausgesucht aus den DWDS-Korpora. Interaktion Beispielsätze anzeigen. Detailliertere Informationen bietet.
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A parasocial interaction, an exposure that garners interest in a persona,  becomes a parasocial relationship after repeated exposure to the media persona causes the media user to develop illusions of intimacy, friendship, and identification.
Social media introduces additional opportunities for parasocial relationships to intensify because it provides more opportunities for intimate, reciprocal, and frequent interactions between the user and persona.
Parasocial interaction was first described from the perspective of media and communication studies. In , Horton and Wohl explored the different interactions between mass media users and media figures and determined the existence of a parasocial relationship PSR , where the user acts as though they are involved in a typical social relationship.
Horton and Wohl suggested that for most people, parasocial interactions with persona complement their current social interactions, while also suggesting that there are some individuals who exhibit extreme parasociality, or they substitute parasocial interactions for actual social interactions.
Although the concept originated from a psychological topic, extensive research of PSI has been performed in the area of mass communication with manifold results.
The concept of parasocial interaction and detailed examination of the behavioral phenomena that it seeks to explain have considerable potential for developing psychological theory.
The conceptual development of parasocial interaction PSI and parasocial relationship PSR are interpreted and employed in different ways in various literatures.
PSI specifically means the "one-sided process of media person perception during media exposure", whereas PSR stands for "a cross-situational relationship that a viewer or user holds to a media person, which includes specific cognitive and affective components".
For example, Dibble et al. To test their assertion, they tested for parasocial indicators with two different scales used for parasocial inquiry: the traditional PSI-Scale Rubin et al.
The traditional PSI-Scale, along with modified forms of it, is the most widely used measure of PSI assessment. Because of varying conceptions, it is difficult for researchers to reach a consensus.
Studying social interaction, and by extension parasocial interaction PSI , follows a social cognitive approach to defining individual cognitive activity.
Accordingly, there are similar psychological processes at work in both parasocial relationships and face-to-face interactions.
However, the parasocial relationship does not follow the process of the typical long-term relationship. The media user remains a stranger to the media figure, whereas this "strangeness" would gradually evaporate in typical social interaction.
Many parasocial relationships fulfill the needs of typical social interaction, but potentially reward insecurity. Many who possess a dismissive attachment style to others may find the one-sided interaction to be preferable in lieu of dealing with others, while those who experience anxiety from typical interactions may find comfort in the lives of celebrities consistently being present.
The research of PSI obtained significant interest after the advent of the uses and gratifications approach to mass communication research in the early s.
Rosengren and Windahl further argued that PSI could be identified in the process of viewers' interacting with media figures, but such interaction did not produce identification.
Noticing the importance of media in the area of psychological research, Giles asserted that there is a need for PSI research to move away from the field of mass communication and into the field of psychology.
For example, Turner adopted the idea of homophily i. The author found that one dimension of homophily i. Hataway indicated that although there seems to be prevailing to analyze PSI in the domain of social psychology, a solid connection to psychological theory and developmental theory has been missing.
Hataway further suggested that more psychological research is needed in order to develop parasocial theory. Specific issues cited were "how parasocial relationships are derived from parasocial interaction and the way those relationships further influence media usage as well as a social construction of reality, and how parasocial interaction is cognitively produced" p.
He saw that the majority of PSI research has been conducted by mass communication scholars as a weakness and called for psychologists to refer to Giles for directions of studies.
Another important consideration for the study of PSI at a psychological level is that there is a form of PSI existing even in interpersonal social situation.
People may use fundamentally the same cognitive processes in both interpersonal and mediated communication.
A further consideration is application of social cognitive approaches in individual levels. It is traditionally accepted that this approach is inadequate by itself for the study of relationships Duck, Current PSI literature commonly acknowledge that the psychological processes acting at the individual level parallel those used in ordinary social activity and relationship building.
Parasocial interaction is best explored across a lifespan, which explains the growing focus on parasocial interaction in children and adolescents.
Studies have found that sex-role stereotyping is common in children's parasocial relationships with media figures, though boys most overwhelmingly choose male characters, while young girls are less likely to prefer one gender over another.
Additionally, sex-role stereotyping is more common in children ages 5—6, but decreases in children age 10— Existing literature also intimates that attachments, parasocial or otherwise, established in early childhood, are highly influential on relationships created later in life.
Many studies have focused on adolescent girls because they are more likely to form a strong bond with a media figure and be influenced in terms of lifestyle choices.
The primary effect is that of learning: consistent with Bandura's social cognitive theory, much evidence shows that children learn from positive and negative televised role models, and acquire norms and standards for conduct through media outlets such as television and video games.
This is supported by a study by Cynthia Hoffner with children aged 7—12, which showed that the gender of children's favorite televised characters was strongly correlated to the gender of the children.
Furthermore, the research showed "wishful identification" with parasocial relationships, namely, that boys preferred intelligence, while girls preferred attractiveness when picking favorite characters.
These alternatives are both enhanced and mitigated by their separation from reality. The lack of actual contact with these idealized figures can offer positive social interactions without risk of rejection or consequent feelings of unworthiness.
One cannot know everything about a media figure or icon, allowing adolescents to attach fantasized attributes onto these figures in order to meet their own specific wants or needs.
On the other hand, entities far removed from reality tend to be less influential on children. A study by Rosaen and Dibble examined correlation between realism of favorite television character and strength of parasocial relationships.
Results showed a positive correlation between social realism how realistic the character is and strength of parasocial relationships.
Results also show age-related differences among children. Older children tended to prefer more realistic characters, while younger children generally had more powerful parasocial relationships with any character.
Age, however, did not impact the correlation between social realism and strength of parasocial interaction, which suggests that more real characters are grounds for more powerful parasocial relationships in children of all ages.
The ability to learn from parasocial relationships is directly correlated to the strength of the relationship, as has been shown in work by Sandra L.
Calvert and colleagues. In a study by Lauricella, Gola, and Calvert , eight month-old infants were taught seriation sequencing by one of two characters.
Children were better able to learn from the socially meaningful character Elmo than from the character who was less easily recognized DoDo.
Furthermore, children could become better able to learn from less socially-relevant characters such as DoDo, by developing a parasocial relationship with that character.
Accordingly, after children were given DoDo toys to play with, their ability to learn from that character increased. In a later study, this effect was found to be greatest when children showed stronger parasocial relationships: Children's success on the seriation task, and therefore their ability to learn from a less familiar character, was greatest for children who exhibited more emotional nurturing behaviors toward the DoDo toy during play.
Personalization of a character makes a child more likely to nurture the character, and thus more likely to form a parasocial relationship that would improve learning from videos featuring the character.
These interactive plush toy dogs can be programmed to say a child's name and have particular favorites i. At the end of the study, children who had received personalized dolls were better able to learn from their characters than were children who had received non-personalized toys.
Children also nurtured personalized toys more than non-personalized toys. It seems that perceived similarities increase children's interest and investment in the characters, which motivates the development of parasocial relationships and helps improve later screen-based learning.
In the past two decades, people have become increasingly interested in the potential negative impacts media has on people's' behavior and cognition.
Many researchers have begun to look more closely at how people's relationships with various media outlets affect behavior, self-perception and attachment styles, and specifically in regards to creating parasocial relationships.
Further research has examined these relationships with regard to body image and self-perception. Die zentralen Figuren in Parasozial haben alle mit Problemen zu kämpfen: Vincent ist nicht in der Lage, sich auf einen echten Menschen einzulassen, das Double Lottie sucht krampfhaft nach Anerkennung und wechselt täglich ihre Identität und dem Autoren Pax Pavcovic ist es nicht mehr möglich, eigene Ideen zu entwickeln.
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